Conservative treatments for BMLs include pain medications, knee braces, crutches, and physical therapy, but chronic BMLs that do not heal by themselves may require treatment. Subchondroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that involves filling the chronic BMLs with a bone substitute material. The procedure is performed under fluoroscopy, and the bone substitute material is injected into the bone through a cannula. The advantages of subchondroplasty include being an outpatient procedure, faster recovery, quicker return to normal activities, and not hindering total knee replacement if required in the future. The ideal candidate for subchondroplasty is a patient diagnosed with BMLs as the primary source of knee pain, but the procedure is contraindicated in patients with a BMI greater than 40 or those with severe malalignment of the knee joint. After the procedure, patients may experience some pain and discomfort in the operated area for 1-2 days, and crutches and physical therapy may be recommended to reduce weight bearing on the operated leg and to regain strength and mobility in the knee.